# Tutorials

Learn to visualize your data like an expert with these practical how-tos for presentation, analysis, and understanding.

#### How to Make a Heatmap in Excel

Heatmaps quickly translate data tables into a visual form, making them a great tool to explore a new dataset.

#### How to Untangle a Spaghetti Line Chart (with R Examples)

Put multiple time series lines on the same plot, and you quickly end up with a mess. Here are practical ways to clean it up.

#### How to Make a Customized Excess Mortality Chart in Excel

Show current evolution against expected historical variability and add one or more series that could account for the difference.

#### How to Make a Spiral Chart in R

Using a spiral might not be the best way to encode data. But here's how to do it anyway. Just in case.

#### How to Make Difference Charts in Excel

Also known as a bivariate area chart, the plot type focuses on the comparison between two time series.

#### How to Make Animated Histograms in R, with ggplot and gganimate

Make them move to show a shift in distributions over time.

#### How to Visualize Anomalies in Time Series Data in R, with ggplot

Quickly see what's below and above average through the noise and seasonal trends.

#### How to Flatten the Curve, a Social Distancing Simulation and Tutorial

Using R, we look at how your decreased interaction with others can help slow the spread of infectious diseases.

#### How to Make a Dynamic Multi-population Pyramid in Excel

Create better population pyramids that allow for improved comparisons between sexes and populations.

#### How to Visualize Hierarchical Graphs in R, with ggraph and tidygraph

Network graphs are a good way to find structure and relationships within hierarchical data. Here are several ways to do it.

#### How to Make Line Charts in Python, with Pandas and Matplotlib

The chart type can be used to show patterns over time and relationships between variables. This is a comprehensive introduction to making them using two common libraries.

#### How to Make a Grid Map with Histograms in R, with ggplot

Layout multiple charts in a single view. Then adjust the scales appropriately for maximum comparability and a unified graphic.

#### How to Make Interactive Frequency Trails with D3.js

Layering time series data or distributions with this method can change the feel and aesthetic versus a multi-line chart or small multiples. In some cases, frequency trails let you show more in less space.

#### How to Draw Maps with Hatching Lines in R

Fill areas with varying line density to give more or less visual attention. With geographic maps, the technique is especially useful to adjust for population density.

#### How to Make a Bump Chart in R, with ggplot

Visualize rankings over time instead of absolute values to focus on order instead of the magnitude of change.

#### How to Make a Multi-Series Dot Plot in Excel

Easily compare multiple categories and spot differences between two or more series.

#### How to Use IPUMS Extraction Tools to Download Survey Data

Almost all of my visualization projects that use data from the Census Bureau comes via IPUMS. In this guide, I provide five steps to getting the data you need using their tools.

#### How to Make Animated Visualization GIFs with ImageMagick

Using the library command-line gets you more flexibility to highlight the important parts of the data.

#### How to Make a Polar Density Plot in R

With cyclical data, a circular format might be useful. Combine that with a smooth density to reduce noise, and you got yourself a plot.

#### How to Make Baseline Charts in R

By shifting the baseline to a reference point, you can focus a line chart on relative change, which can improve the visibility of smaller categories.

#### Getting Started with D3.js

Learn how to build a custom visualization using D3.js and get acquainted with the popular JavaScript library.

#### How to Make a Moving Bubble Chart, Based on a Dataset

Ooo, bubbles... It's not the most visually efficient method, but it's one of the more visually satisfying ones.

#### How to Make a Bump Chart in R

Visualize rankings over time instead of absolute values to focus on order instead of the magnitude of change.