I'm a little dense when it comes to astronomy, but I think I understand this image. Simply entitled "Sky Map," it was created by Polish designer, Paulina Urbańska. It shows various constellations and where their stars begin in the early evening. It then follows the path created by the earth's rotation, illustrating where the same stars end up in the morning. Colored areas of the paths are daylight hours.
This map is just begging for some interaction to make it more useful, but it's beautiful as is. Be sure to check out all of Paulina's other lovely works.