We use our cameras all of the time, and it almost seems like magic when you press that button and somehow an image is captured. But of course it’s not magic. Bartosz Ciechanowski provides a detailed interactive explainer on how the camera and lens record light.
There are a lot of satisfying sliders to adjust dimensions and see how the mechanics change. It reminds me of those exhibits at kid science museums with the big knobs and handles.
See also Ciechanowski’s explainer of a similar flavor on how gears work.