GE and Ben Fry (now the director of SEED visualization), show the cost of getting sick, from the individual's and insurer's perspective. The data: 500k records from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey from GE's proprietary database. The visualization: a polar area pie chart.
Wedges are colored by chronic condition and wedge size (angle), represents the percentage of patients with the condition. Wedge length from center to edge is cost. The lightly colored portions are personal cost and the darkly colored are insurer cost.
So we're sort of seeing cost by area of a wedge, but not quite.
You can also use the scroll at the bottom right to adjust age, which works as a good filter.
Update: Here's Ben Fry talking a little bit about his work as director of SEED visualization.